Hot isostatic pressing
Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is mainly used to remove internal hollows, such as pores or cavities, from cast or sintered workpieces made of ceramic or metal. The aim is to create material properties comparable to those of forged workpieces. With HIP, the workpiece is placed in a sealed, deformable container, which in turn is enclosed in a pressure vessel. The workpiece is then compacted at a temperature of up to 2000 °C/3632 °F and a pressure of between 100 and 200 MPa. The pressing power acts on the workpiece from all sides so that isotropic properties are achieved. If the components are designed correctly, the higher properties can also minimise the risk of failure.